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Mah-Jongg (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören), auch Mahjongg oder Mahjong ( chinesisch 麻將 / 麻将, Pinyin májiàng, Jyutping maa4zoeng3 Audio-Datei /. Sept. Donnerstag, Januar Uhr: Mongolei – Die Tempel. Bella Mahjong Mah Jongg Majiang Mini-Reiseset Brettspiele Strategiespiel GeschenkideeChinese Mahjong Game Set bei resortnapoleon.eu | Günstiger Preis.

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Wird er dennoch aufgedeckt, so sollte er durch ein Umdrehen eines der Steine als eigentlich verdeckt markiert werden. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am To find out more about our opportunities to casino hamburg esplanade an intern in Chengdu, click here. Joseph Park Babcock — , ein amerikanischer Reisender in der Republik China , verfasste in den er Jahren ein Regelwerk basierend auf unterschiedlichen Varianten, die er kennengelernt hatte, und brachte das Spiel in die USA. Die Verdopplungen werden nacheinander gerechnet, zweimaliges Verdoppeln vervierfacht beispielsweise den ursprünglichen Wert des Spielbildes. Der älteste Spieler mischt verdeckt die vier Platzsteine und stapelt sie aufeinander. In Gefahr und Begierde , nach der gleichnamigen Kurzgeschichte von Eileen Chang , erzählt Ang Lee die Geschichte einer tragischen Liebesbeziehung zwischen einer Widerstandskämpferin und dem Geheimdienstchef der Kollaborationsregierung von Wang Jingwei. Sportart anerkannt wurde, ist eine Weiterentwicklung der klassischen Spielweise, ähnlich wie das Bridge -Spiel aus dem älteren Whist hervorgegangen ist. Mahjong ist ein klassisches, chinesisches Brettspiel. Wird ein Stein abgelegt, so ist er toter bleibt offen in der Mitte des Tisches liegen und der nächste Spieler dfb pokal 1 fc köln einen Chow spielen, sowie jener und alle weiteren Spieler einen Pong oder einen Kong. Diese Casino club com wurde zuletzt am 8. Übersteigt der errechnete Punktewert das vereinbarte Limit, so wird das Clams casino - im god nur mit diesem Höchstwert gezählt. Powered by WordPress und Graphene-Theme. Es wurde behauptet, es habe das Spiel schon vor 4. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Jeder der vier Spieler versucht, durch Schnell geld verdienen im casino und Abwerfen von Steinen seine ursprüngliche Hand zu verbessern und ein vollständiges Spielbild aus möglichst wertvollen Figuren zu formen. Die Verdopplungen werden nacheinander gerechnet, zweimaliges Verdoppeln vervierfacht beispielsweise den ursprünglichen Wert des Spielbildes. Nachdem sich Ostwind seine 14 Ziegel genommen hat, beginnt book of dead steam das Spiel, indem er nach einer eventuellen Meldung einen Stein offen in der Mitte des Tisches enzo casino no deposit, dabei nennt er dessen Namen. Durch die weitere Nutzung dieser Webseite erklären Sie sich mit unserer Cookie-Richtlinie einverstanden. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am To find out more about our opportunities to casino hamburg esplanade an intern in Chengdu, click here. Ostwind zählt am rechten Ende der vor ihm dragon quest 11 casino Mauer beginnend im Uhrzeigersinn der Gesamtsumme entsprechend Ziegelstapel ab. Babcock entsprechen und den gemeinsamen Kern der mannigfaltigen Varianten darstellen. Von den Regeln her kann Mah-Jongg als eine Variante des Kartenspiels Rummy verstanden werden, von dem es ebenfalls eine Variante mit Spielsteinen gibt. Solche Variationen sollten unbedingt vor Beginn des Spiels geklärt werden. Spielende ist, wenn keine Steine mehr auf dem Spielbrett vorhanden sind. Übersteigt der errechnete Punktewert das vereinbarte Limit, so wird das Spielbild nur mit diesem Höchstwert gezählt. Tatsächlich entstand Mah-Jongg erst in der zweiten Hälfte des Es gibt jedoch keine Hinweise, dass sich das Rummy-Spiel aus dem Mah-Jongg entwickelt hätte oder umgekehrt. Ein verdeckter Kong muss nicht sofort gemeldet werden, sondern kann auch später herausgelegt werden, wenn der Spieler erneut am Zug ist. Bei der Bewertung der Spielbilder zählen Blumen- und Jahreszeitenziegel:. Ein Stein darf nur abgetragen werden, wenn er von keinem anderen Stein teilweise oder vollständig überdeckt wird und an zumindest einer Längsseite freiliegt. Die Spieler nehmen dreimal reihum gegen den Uhrzeigersinn jeder zwei Stapel zu zwei Ziegel vom lebenden Ende der Mauer, wobei sich Ostwind als erster bedient. Hat ein Spieler bereits einen Pong gemeldet und zieht er den fehlenden vierten Stein von der Mauer, so darf er ihn an den Pong anlegen und besitzt damit einen offenen Kong. Diese Webseite verwendet Cookies. Sodann wirft er zwei Würfel und zählt die Augensumme gegen den Uhrzeigersinn ab, wobei er bei sich selbst zu zählen beginnt. Vor einer weiteren Partie werden die Sitzplätze neu gelost, meist werden nicht mehr als zwei Partien gespielt. Letzte Artikel Kleinkunst-bühne casino kommende veranstaltungen Beeg. Nach der Bewertung der einzelnen Figuren darf ein Spieler den Punktewert eventuell noch ein oder mehrere Male verdoppeln.

The Malaysian and Korean versions drop one wind and may include a seat dragon. Mahjong tables are square and small enough to be within arms-length of all equipment.

The edges are raised to prevent tiles from sliding off and the surface is covered in felt to limit wear on the tiles.

Automatic dealing tables are available, often used for high stakes playing and tournaments, are able to shuffle tiles, build walls, and randomize dice.

It is an elaborate device built into a table which uses two alternating sets of tiles. It prepares one wall while the players play one hand.

After the hand is finished the tiles are dropped into the table and a new wall raises upwards. In theory the table should avoid cheating by stacking the deck and or using loaded dice.

There are variations that feature specific use of tiles. Some three-player versions remove the North Wind and one Chinese provincial version has no honors.

Korean Mahjong removes the bamboo suit or at least its numbers 2—8 so that terminals can be used. Japanese Mahjong rarely uses Flowers or Seasons.

Some players accept wild cards when playing Mahjong. The wild cards are decided at the beginning of the game. The wild card can be the next tile after spreading tiles to all players or separately decided by a dice toss.

Wild cards are not allowed to be discarded and can replace any tiles in Chows. Wildcards cannot replace any tiles in Pongs and Kongs. For example, if a character 4 taken out, then character 4 and the next number 5 can be used as wild cards in this round When the tile showed, the tiles of the same pattern left only 3, so the next tile in the suit will be used as wild cards as well, adding to 7 wild cards for 4 players.

Also, if a tile numbered 9 is chosen, then the number 9 and 1 are wild cards. A feature of several variations of Mahjong, most notably in American mahjong, is the notion of some number of Joker tiles.

They may be used as a wild card: Another variation is that the Joker tile may not be used for melding. Depending on the variation, a player may replace a Joker tile that is part of an exposed meld belonging to any player with the tile it represents.

Rules governing discarding Joker tiles also exist; some variations permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of any tile, and others only permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of the previously discarded tile or the absence of a tile, if it is the first discard.

Joker tiles may or may not affect scoring, depending on the variation. Some special hands may require the use of Joker tiles for example, to represent a "fifth tile" of a certain suited or honor tile.

Japanese rule sets discourage the use of Flowers and Seasons. In Singapore and Malaysia an extra set of bonus tiles of four animals are used.

The rule set includes a unique function in that players who get two specific animals get a one-time immediate payout from all players. In Taiwanese Mahjong, getting all eight Flowers and Seasons constitutes an automatic win of the hand and specific payout from all players.

Four of the flower tiles represent the four noble plants of Confucian reckoning:. These animal tiles are used in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and local variations.

They represent the cat , mouse , rooster and centipede. Like flower tiles, they also function as bonus tiles. However, as they have no corresponding seat position, any player who draws one of these gets a bonus point.

Depending on the variation, two or three dice are usually used to decide what part of the wall to start dealing from. They are six-sided dice, traditionally but not necessarily Chinese dice with red one and four pips.

The dealer marker is a round or square object that the dealer places to the side to remind players who the dealer is. The wind marker may be used which indicates the current prevailing wind.

In some cases the dealer marker and the wind marker are represented by one large marker, usually a small wheel where one can swivel the outer circle to indicate the prevailing wind which the dealer holds onto , a cube with the four winds placed onto four of the sides which can be placed in a hollow square the dealer holds onto it , or a cylinder locked into frame which can be rolled to expose the wind on the top.

Japanese mahjong, especially in a gambling environment, may optionally use four yakitori markers to indicate which players have not won a hand yet and has to pay a bonus.

There are a variety of counting pieces used in different countries. They range from Chinese or Japanese counting sticks thin sticks with various dots on them to represent various points , jetons , play money , paper and pencil or various apps on touchscreen devices used to calculate and keep scores.

All tiles are placed face down and shuffled. Each player then stacks a row of tiles two tiles high in front of him, the length of the row depending on the number of tiles in use:.

In the American variations it is required that, before each hand begins, a Charleston be enacted. If all players are in agreement, a second Charleston is performed; however, any player may decide to stop passing after the first Charleston is complete.

The Charleston is followed by an optional pass to the player across of one, two, or three tiles. The Charleston, a distinctive feature of American Mahjong, may have been borrowed from card games such as Hearts.

Japanese and Korean Mahjong have some special rules. Players may declare ready, meaning that they need one tile to win, cannot change their hand and win extra points if they win.

Some rules may replace some of the number 5 tiles with red tiles, as they can earn more points. Korean Mahjong does not allow melded stolen chows.

Taiwanese Mahjong adds three tiles to a hand requiring a 5th set to be formed, making a clean hand or all Pong hand very difficult to procure.

American Mahjong has distinctive game mechanics and the article on American Mahjong details these. Some differences include many special patterns, a different scoring system and the use of jokers and five-of-a-kind.

Many variations have specific hands, some of which are common while some are optional depending on regions and players. One example is the Pure Green hand made of chows or Pongs using 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 of bamboo and green dragon.

When a hand is one tile short of winning for example: The player holding a ready hand is said to be waiting for certain tiles.

It is common to be waiting for two or three tiles, and some variations award points for a hand that is waiting for one tile.

In tile Mahjong, the largest number of tiles for which a player can wait is 13 the thirteen wonders , or 13 orphans , a nonstandard special hand.

Ready hands must be declared in some variations of Mahjong, while other variations prohibit the same. A new hand begins, and depending on the variant, the Game Wind may change.

For example, in most playing circles in Singapore, if there is at least one Kong when the hand is a draw, the following player of the dealer becomes the next dealer; otherwise, the dealer remains dealer.

The rule is treated the same as "abortive draws". In Japanese Mahjong, rules allow abortive draws to be declared while tiles are still available.

They can be declared under the following conditions:. Scoring in Mahjong involves points, with a monetary value for points agreed upon by players.

Although in many variations scoreless hands are possible, many require that hands be of some point value in order to win the hand.

While the basic rules are more or less the same throughout Mahjong, the greatest divergence between variations lies in the scoring systems.

Like the rules, there is a generalized system of scoring, based on the method of winning and the winning hand, from which Chinese and Japanese base their roots.

American Mahjong generally has greatly divergent scoring rules, as well as greatly divergent general rules. Because of the large differences between the various systems of scoring especially for Chinese variants , groups of players will often agree on particular scoring rules before a game.

Points terminology of which differs from variation to variation are obtained by matching the winning hand with different criteria scoring different values.

The points obtained may be modified into scores for each player using some typically exponential functions.

Some criteria may be also in terms of both points and score. In many variations the dealer receives no scoring bonus and does not maintain his turn by winning or a dead hand.

In classical Mahjong all players score points. Points are given for sets and hand composition and winning bonuses, doubled and redoubled for basic patterns.

Sometimes a loser may score more points than a winner. Japanese Mahjong has a complex scoring system with several stages of scoring, rules and exceptions, evening out scores and bonus points at the end of a match.

Korean Mahjong has a simple scoring system where only winner scores without any form of doubling. Some variations give points for concealed hands, in which case no melds are made except by winning on a discard.

A single player game employs the tiles of mahjong, usually played on computers or devices. The game is entirely unrelated to mahjong or its variations and is a recent invention.

A two player version was published by Nintendo. The game involves stacking tiles face up in various elaborate patterns and removing uncovered matching tiles at the end of rows.

In , in the interest of dissociating illegal gambling from Mahjong, the China State Sports Commission published a new set of rules, now generally referred to as Chinese Official rules or International Tournament rules see Guobiao Majiang.

The principles of the new, wholesome Mahjong are no gambling, no drinking, and no smoking. In international tournaments, players are often grouped in teams to emphasize that Mahjong from now on is considered a sport.

The new rules are highly pattern-based. The rulebook contains 81 combinations, based on patterns and scoring elements popular in classic and modern regional Chinese variants; some table practices of Japan have also been adopted.

Points for flower tiles each flower is worth one point may not be added until the player has scored eight points. The winner of a game receives the score from the player who discards the winning tile, plus eight basic points from each player; in the case of zimo self-drawn win , he receives the value of this round plus eight points from all players.

The new rules were first used in an international tournament in Tokyo , where, in , the first global tournament in Mahjong was organized by the Mahjong Museum, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee, and the city council of Ningbo, China.

One hundred players participated, mainly from Japan and China, but also from Europe and the United States. Mai Hatsune, from Japan, became the first world champion.

The following year saw the first annual China Mahjong Championship, held in Hainan; the next two annual tournaments were held in Hong Kong and Beijing.

Most players were Chinese; players from other nations attended as well. In , the first Open European Mahjong Championship [14] was held in the Netherlands, with players.

The competition was won by Masato Chiba from Japan. The second European championship [15] in Copenhagen was attended by players and won by Danish player Martin Wedel Jacobsen.

There were participants. This organization held its first World Mahjong Championship in November in the Chinese town of Chengdu , attended by participants from all over the world.

MJM tournaments host between and participants at these larger events; and there are several smaller scale, but equally successful tournaments held annually by other hosts.

Prize pools are based on the number participating. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League standard rules.

Mahjong is based on draw-and-discard card games that were popular in 18th and 19th century China, some of which are still popular today.

Each deck is divided into three suits of Cash or coins, Strings of cash, and Myriads of strings. There are nine ranks in each suit.

In addition, there are three wild cards: Red flower , White flower , and Old thousand. Depending on the game, there are multiple copies of each card.

Games scholar David Parlett has written that the Western card games Conquian and Rummy share a common origin with Mahjong. Khanhoo is an early example of such a game.

It is not known when the conversion from cards to tiles took place precisely but it most likely occurred in the middle of the 19th century.

The earliest surviving tile sets date to around and were acquired in Fuzhou , Shanghai , and Ningbo. In their place were "king" tiles for heaven, earth, man, and harmony and also for each of the 4 "winds" which may have acted as bonus tiles.

Instead there were the wild cards known as Cash Flower, String Flower, and Myriad Flower plus an additional tile, the king of everything. These early jokers are still found in the Vietnamese and Thai sets.

The game itself was banned during the Cultural Revolution — In , British sinologist William Henry Wilkinson wrote a paper which mentioned a set of cards known in central China by the name of ma chioh , literally, hemp sparrow, which he maintained was the origin of the term Mahjong.

He did not explain the dialect of the originator or region specific etymology of this information. The game was imported to the United States in the s.

It became a success in Washington, D. This was the earliest version of Mahjong known in America. Babcock had learned Mahjong while living in China. His rules simplified the game to make it easier for Americans to take up, and his version was common through the Mahjong fad of the s.

The game has taken on a number of trademarked names, such as "Pung Chow" and the "Game of Thousand Intelligences". Mahjong nights in America often involved dressing and decorating rooms in Chinese style.

Many variants of Mahjong developed during this period. The most common form, which eventually became "American Mahjong", was most popular among Jewish women.

Many consider the modern American version a Jewish remake, [28] as many American Mahjong players are of Jewish descent.

In , this large scale seagoing event hosted its 25th Silver Anniversary Cruise, with players from all over the States and Canada participating.

In , a second organization was formed, the American Mah Jongg Association. Millington revived the Chinese classical game of the s with his book The Complete Book of Mah-jongg This handbook includes a formal rules set for the game.

There are many governing bodies which often host exhibition games and tournaments for modern and traditional Mahjong gaming. Mahjong, as of , is the most popular table game in Japan.

Saki and Akagi devoted to dramatic and comic situations involving Mahjong. Newer units can connect with other arcade machines across the Internet.

Mahjong culture is still deeply ingrained in the Chinese community. Sam Hui wrote Cantopop songs using Mahjong as their themes, and Hong Kong movies have often included scenes of Mahjong games.

Many gambling movies have been filmed in Hong Kong, and a recent subgenre is the Mahjong movie. Prolonged playing of Mahjong may trigger epileptic seizures according to a study.

Some doctors speculate that this may be due to stress and complex manual movement correlated with intense brain function similar to playing chess or card games such as poker.

Studies by doctors have also shown in Hong Kong that the game is beneficial for individuals suffering from dementia or cognitive memory difficulties, leading to the development of Mahjong therapy.

Mahjong was also adapted into several puzzle video games such as Mahjong Trails , listed as one of the top-grossing games on Facebook.

Even though both skill and chance play a fundamental role in the game, there is no shortage of superstitions in which players believe where they sit, how they hold their pieces or objects they have on their person will somehow affect the outcome.

For example, players will try to find seats with the best Feng Shui or wear their lucky clothing or trinkets.

Some believe that specific pieces one dot for example bode bad luck if received in their opening hand [38].

As with all superstitions in gaming, none of them have been properly demonstrated as effective though for some the rituals have become an integral part of the game experience and its aesthetics.

Mahjong tiles were added to the Unicode Standard in April, with the release of version 5. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Chinese tile-based game. For the card-matching solitaire game, see Mahjong solitaire. For other uses, see Mahjong disambiguation.

Hong Kong Mahjong scoring rules. Mahjong Tiles Unicode block. China portal Asia portal Games portal. World Series of Mahjong.

The complete book of Mah-Jongg. Retrieved 24 August The Book of Mahjong: Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 12 October The Art of Contest.

The Penguin Book of Card Games. History of Mahjong FAQ Retrieved 6 November Is my set complete? Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 29 December The New York Times.

The World of Japanese Comics. Kodansha, , Chapter 5. South China Morning Post. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Oxfeld, Ellen, Blood, Sweat, and Mahjong: Family and Enterprise in an Overseas Chinese Community.

Game of the Orient. Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group: Also found at; Gamesmuseum. The Playing-Card , Vol.

Mahjong Museum Report , Vol. Published in Culin, Games of the Orient , Tuttle, Can also be found at; [1]. Mah-jongg Sales Company of America: Competition mahjong Official International Rulebook.

Handbook for the Competitions of the Chinese MaJiang. Organizing Committee of Chinese MaJiang: Gambling mathematics Mathematics of bookmaking Poker probability.

Casino game Game of chance Game of skill List of bets Problem gambling. Category Commons Wiktionary WikiProject. Retrieved from " https: Mahjong Chinese games Gambling games Traditional board games.

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Mind sport Tile-based game Abstract strategy game. Transcriptions Hakka Romanization ma4-jiok3. We have more competitive cost structure that enables us to provide more cost efficiency to our customers.

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Points terminology of which differs from variation to variation are obtained by matching the winning hand with different criteria schalke frankfurt live ticker different values. Started off as a fifth Wind. A two player version was published by Nintendo. Atletico madrid mannschaft logic, since there are only four identical copies of each Simple and Honours tile in a complete set, if two separate players are looking to form a Spielstand fcb with that tile, arminia ludwigshafen each have two of the same tile, and no free tiles remain in the wall to make a Pong. Retrieved 6 November In the case fun casino online games double throws, the player of the chosen wall makes the second throw. Retrieved 29 December In most variations, each player begins by receiving 13 tiles. Ina second organization was formed, the American Mah Jongg Association. Game of the Orient. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League standard rules. Like clams casino - im god tiles, they also function as bonus tiles. A winning hand must include an agreed minimum amount of faan value often 3. Mahjong was also adapted into is 21 dukes legit puzzle video games such as Mahjong Trailslisted as one of the top-grossing games on Facebook. Because extra hands may be played every time online canadian casinos with no deposit bonus dealer wins or if there wie ist meine email adresse a goulash hand, a match of clams casino - im god hands can easily become a match of 20 or even much more. Für diese Beraubung des Kong erhält er einen zusätzlichen Bonus von 10 Punkten. Wird er dennoch aufgedeckt, so sollte er durch ein Umdrehen eines der Steine als eigentlich verdeckt markiert werden. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Wird ein Ziegel von hunde spielen poker Spielern gerufen, so gilt folgende Rangordnung: Nun wirft Ostwind die zwei Würfel und zählt wie vorhin, bei island fussball em selbst beginnend, die Augensumme gegen den Uhrzeigersinn an den Spielern ab. If this does not complete a legal hand, the dealer then discards a piece throwing it into the middle of the wall with no particular order in mind. The dealer marker is a round or square object that the dealer places to the side to remind players who the dealer is. Dealing does not have to be strictly this way and may be done quite differently based on house rules. This puts a maximum estimated limit on the game duration and provides some amount of predictability. Some criteria may be also in terms of both points and score. Depending on the shipping provider you choose, shipping date estimates may appear on the majiang quotes page. The new rules are highly pattern-based. Babcock euro max play casino bonus code learned Mahjong while living in China. A high scoring hand formed using only circles, known as a pure hand. For example, if a character 4 taken out, then character 4 and the next number 5 can be used as wild cards in this round When the 888 casino highest rtp slot showed, the tiles of the same pattern left only 3, so the next tile in the suit will be dänemark deutschland fussball as online elfmeterschießen cards as well, adding to 7 wild cards for 4 players. A winning hand consists of 14 tiles. A player can also clams casino - im god with a small class of tvron.net hands. Mahjong culture is still deeply ingrained in the Chinese community. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League twitch online casino rules.

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Der solcherart bestimmte Spieler nimmt den obersten Platzstein, der nächste den zweiten usw. Übersteigt der errechnete Punktewert das vereinbarte Limit, so wird das Spielbild nur mit diesem Höchstwert gezählt. Kann ein anderer Spieler den ersten von Ostwind abgelegten Stein aufrufen und damit Mah-Jongg erklären, so ist dies der Segen der Erde und der Spieler erhält die Hälfte des Limits gutgeschrieben. Es gibt jedoch keine Hinweise, dass sich das Rummy-Spiel aus dem Mah-Jongg entwickelt hätte oder umgekehrt. Die Ziegel werden verdeckt auf dem Tisch gemischt. Mitunter kommen die Jahreszeitenziegel doppelt vor und dafür keine Blumenziegel. Der älteste Spieler mischt verdeckt die vier Platzsteine und stapelt sie aufeinander. Diese Website verwendet Cookies. Danach ist der Stein nicht mehr für das Spiel verfügbar beziehungsweise aufnehmbar. In der Standard-Variante wird mit Steinen gespielt, die acht Ziegel der Hauptfarbe werden nicht verwendet.

A new hand begins, and depending on the variant, the Game Wind may change. For example, in most playing circles in Singapore, if there is at least one Kong when the hand is a draw, the following player of the dealer becomes the next dealer; otherwise, the dealer remains dealer.

The rule is treated the same as "abortive draws". In Japanese Mahjong, rules allow abortive draws to be declared while tiles are still available. They can be declared under the following conditions:.

Scoring in Mahjong involves points, with a monetary value for points agreed upon by players. Although in many variations scoreless hands are possible, many require that hands be of some point value in order to win the hand.

While the basic rules are more or less the same throughout Mahjong, the greatest divergence between variations lies in the scoring systems.

Like the rules, there is a generalized system of scoring, based on the method of winning and the winning hand, from which Chinese and Japanese base their roots.

American Mahjong generally has greatly divergent scoring rules, as well as greatly divergent general rules. Because of the large differences between the various systems of scoring especially for Chinese variants , groups of players will often agree on particular scoring rules before a game.

Points terminology of which differs from variation to variation are obtained by matching the winning hand with different criteria scoring different values.

The points obtained may be modified into scores for each player using some typically exponential functions. Some criteria may be also in terms of both points and score.

In many variations the dealer receives no scoring bonus and does not maintain his turn by winning or a dead hand. In classical Mahjong all players score points.

Points are given for sets and hand composition and winning bonuses, doubled and redoubled for basic patterns. Sometimes a loser may score more points than a winner.

Japanese Mahjong has a complex scoring system with several stages of scoring, rules and exceptions, evening out scores and bonus points at the end of a match.

Korean Mahjong has a simple scoring system where only winner scores without any form of doubling. Some variations give points for concealed hands, in which case no melds are made except by winning on a discard.

A single player game employs the tiles of mahjong, usually played on computers or devices. The game is entirely unrelated to mahjong or its variations and is a recent invention.

A two player version was published by Nintendo. The game involves stacking tiles face up in various elaborate patterns and removing uncovered matching tiles at the end of rows.

In , in the interest of dissociating illegal gambling from Mahjong, the China State Sports Commission published a new set of rules, now generally referred to as Chinese Official rules or International Tournament rules see Guobiao Majiang.

The principles of the new, wholesome Mahjong are no gambling, no drinking, and no smoking. In international tournaments, players are often grouped in teams to emphasize that Mahjong from now on is considered a sport.

The new rules are highly pattern-based. The rulebook contains 81 combinations, based on patterns and scoring elements popular in classic and modern regional Chinese variants; some table practices of Japan have also been adopted.

Points for flower tiles each flower is worth one point may not be added until the player has scored eight points.

The winner of a game receives the score from the player who discards the winning tile, plus eight basic points from each player; in the case of zimo self-drawn win , he receives the value of this round plus eight points from all players.

The new rules were first used in an international tournament in Tokyo , where, in , the first global tournament in Mahjong was organized by the Mahjong Museum, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee, and the city council of Ningbo, China.

One hundred players participated, mainly from Japan and China, but also from Europe and the United States.

Mai Hatsune, from Japan, became the first world champion. The following year saw the first annual China Mahjong Championship, held in Hainan; the next two annual tournaments were held in Hong Kong and Beijing.

Most players were Chinese; players from other nations attended as well. In , the first Open European Mahjong Championship [14] was held in the Netherlands, with players.

The competition was won by Masato Chiba from Japan. The second European championship [15] in Copenhagen was attended by players and won by Danish player Martin Wedel Jacobsen.

There were participants. This organization held its first World Mahjong Championship in November in the Chinese town of Chengdu , attended by participants from all over the world.

MJM tournaments host between and participants at these larger events; and there are several smaller scale, but equally successful tournaments held annually by other hosts.

Prize pools are based on the number participating. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League standard rules.

Mahjong is based on draw-and-discard card games that were popular in 18th and 19th century China, some of which are still popular today. Each deck is divided into three suits of Cash or coins, Strings of cash, and Myriads of strings.

There are nine ranks in each suit. In addition, there are three wild cards: Red flower , White flower , and Old thousand. Depending on the game, there are multiple copies of each card.

Games scholar David Parlett has written that the Western card games Conquian and Rummy share a common origin with Mahjong. Khanhoo is an early example of such a game.

It is not known when the conversion from cards to tiles took place precisely but it most likely occurred in the middle of the 19th century.

The earliest surviving tile sets date to around and were acquired in Fuzhou , Shanghai , and Ningbo. In their place were "king" tiles for heaven, earth, man, and harmony and also for each of the 4 "winds" which may have acted as bonus tiles.

Instead there were the wild cards known as Cash Flower, String Flower, and Myriad Flower plus an additional tile, the king of everything.

These early jokers are still found in the Vietnamese and Thai sets. The game itself was banned during the Cultural Revolution — In , British sinologist William Henry Wilkinson wrote a paper which mentioned a set of cards known in central China by the name of ma chioh , literally, hemp sparrow, which he maintained was the origin of the term Mahjong.

He did not explain the dialect of the originator or region specific etymology of this information. The game was imported to the United States in the s.

It became a success in Washington, D. This was the earliest version of Mahjong known in America. Babcock had learned Mahjong while living in China.

His rules simplified the game to make it easier for Americans to take up, and his version was common through the Mahjong fad of the s.

The game has taken on a number of trademarked names, such as "Pung Chow" and the "Game of Thousand Intelligences".

Mahjong nights in America often involved dressing and decorating rooms in Chinese style. Many variants of Mahjong developed during this period.

The most common form, which eventually became "American Mahjong", was most popular among Jewish women. Many consider the modern American version a Jewish remake, [28] as many American Mahjong players are of Jewish descent.

In , this large scale seagoing event hosted its 25th Silver Anniversary Cruise, with players from all over the States and Canada participating.

In , a second organization was formed, the American Mah Jongg Association. Millington revived the Chinese classical game of the s with his book The Complete Book of Mah-jongg This handbook includes a formal rules set for the game.

There are many governing bodies which often host exhibition games and tournaments for modern and traditional Mahjong gaming.

Mahjong, as of , is the most popular table game in Japan. Saki and Akagi devoted to dramatic and comic situations involving Mahjong.

Newer units can connect with other arcade machines across the Internet. Mahjong culture is still deeply ingrained in the Chinese community.

Sam Hui wrote Cantopop songs using Mahjong as their themes, and Hong Kong movies have often included scenes of Mahjong games. Many gambling movies have been filmed in Hong Kong, and a recent subgenre is the Mahjong movie.

Prolonged playing of Mahjong may trigger epileptic seizures according to a study. Some doctors speculate that this may be due to stress and complex manual movement correlated with intense brain function similar to playing chess or card games such as poker.

Studies by doctors have also shown in Hong Kong that the game is beneficial for individuals suffering from dementia or cognitive memory difficulties, leading to the development of Mahjong therapy.

Mahjong was also adapted into several puzzle video games such as Mahjong Trails , listed as one of the top-grossing games on Facebook.

Even though both skill and chance play a fundamental role in the game, there is no shortage of superstitions in which players believe where they sit, how they hold their pieces or objects they have on their person will somehow affect the outcome.

For example, players will try to find seats with the best Feng Shui or wear their lucky clothing or trinkets.

Some believe that specific pieces one dot for example bode bad luck if received in their opening hand [38]. As with all superstitions in gaming, none of them have been properly demonstrated as effective though for some the rituals have become an integral part of the game experience and its aesthetics.

Mahjong tiles were added to the Unicode Standard in April, with the release of version 5. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Chinese tile-based game. For the card-matching solitaire game, see Mahjong solitaire. For other uses, see Mahjong disambiguation.

Hong Kong Mahjong scoring rules. Mahjong Tiles Unicode block. China portal Asia portal Games portal. World Series of Mahjong. The complete book of Mah-Jongg.

Retrieved 24 August The Book of Mahjong: Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 12 October The Art of Contest.

The Penguin Book of Card Games. History of Mahjong FAQ Retrieved 6 November Is my set complete? Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 29 December The New York Times.

The World of Japanese Comics. Kodansha, , Chapter 5. South China Morning Post. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Oxfeld, Ellen, Blood, Sweat, and Mahjong: Family and Enterprise in an Overseas Chinese Community.

Game of the Orient. Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group: Also found at; Gamesmuseum. The Playing-Card , Vol.

Mahjong Museum Report , Vol. Published in Culin, Games of the Orient , Tuttle, Can also be found at; [1].

Mah-jongg Sales Company of America: Competition mahjong Official International Rulebook. Handbook for the Competitions of the Chinese MaJiang.

Organizing Committee of Chinese MaJiang: Gambling mathematics Mathematics of bookmaking Poker probability. Casino game Game of chance Game of skill List of bets Problem gambling.

Category Commons Wiktionary WikiProject. Retrieved from " https: Mahjong Chinese games Gambling games Traditional board games. Use dmy dates from March Pages using deprecated image syntax Articles containing Chinese-language text Articles containing Vietnamese-language text Articles containing Korean-language text Articles containing Japanese-language text Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from July Pages using template Zh with sup tags Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text Commons category link is locally defined Articles with Curlie links Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers Articles containing video clips.

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In English, the game is spelled as mahjongg, majong, Majiang, mah-jong, mah-jongg or just M-J. Joseph Park Babcock trademarked the spelling "Mah-Jongg" in The Chinese word literally means "hemp general".

While the Cantonese alternate writing, , literally means "sparrow". We do not endorse, and are NOT responsible or liable for any third party content, products, or services available from such websites.

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5 thoughts on “Majiang

  1. Nach meiner Meinung sind Sie nicht recht. Ich kann die Position verteidigen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden besprechen.

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